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A History of Veterinary Medicine

From the time when man domesticated animals, their relationship with them left to be something more than mere subsistence food.

Veterinarian and PetA strong alliance, often defensively offensive should consider a mutual care. To secure this link, the man gave through his reasoning to the domain of art and science, neither more nor less than the vet, the ability to cure the sicknesses of his partner.

Having produced the phenomenon of domestication in the Neolithic, it is clear that we will find men dedicated to the care of animal health and from this period, although the absence of written documents require us to be guided by other less explicit sources such as cave paintings, tell us very little unless vertical stripes in the cave of Montespan, France, which have been interpreted as possibly fences where domesticated animals are kept.

In Egypt the sacred animals were within the temple, who were in charge of feeding and care. “The priests of lower rank, uab (purified) examined the animals for slaughter, the most senior (servants of God) took care of the animals …”. .. whose functions were practical lay inspection of livestock and meat, and to supervise the sacrificers of temples.

The Kahun papyrus is the document that attests to the presence of veterinary medicine in Egypt. Livestock diseases and their treatment described herein, as well as diseases of dogs, cats, birds and fish. “In addition to magical and religious rites, preventive and curative treatment of animal diseases including hot and cold baths, friction, chemical burns, bleeding, castration, setting fractures, etc..” .

In Mesopotamia Code of Hammurabi (ca. -1750) contains duties to cure oxen and donkeys. In Hindu religion the vet Palakapya son was considered a holy man and an elephant. Another famous vet was Salihotra, whose name was subsequently awarded to the horse and horse doctors: salihotrasastra.

Within the territory of what is now China, in the eighth century. C. Wang Tao veterinarian wrote a work on diseases of man, horse, cattle and dogs. Four centuries later the vet Ma Shi Huang “cured horses and dragons name in Chinese literature to the heavenly horses sweat blood was given, ie horses suffering from what today is considered a parasitic Parafilaria multipapilosa”.

In India, King Asoka, known as the Constantine of Buddhism favoritism towards this religion, he built during his reign (ca. -270) veterinary hospitals, pasookicisa to collect sick animals.

Xenophon, the great Athenian polygraph disciple of Socrates, wrote a treatise De riding, which has some principles of animal hygiene, but as its title suggests is not a work dedicated to equine pathology. He also turned his attention to the dogs in a work called De hunting and hunting.

Aristotle wrote a History of Animals, and Parts of Animals, the oldest animal physiology treaty in any language, and a treatise on the Generation of Animals. The general philosophical speculation predominates over any other kind of certainty, hence make statements like that rabies is not transmissible to man no matter bites that occur without scientific rigor. However, some of his arguments never cease to attract attention, as one in holding that exist in the blood fibers, other than water, producing coagulation. Or this: “The heart is the only organ meats, and certainly the one part of the body, unable to tolerate any serious condition, which must occur reasonably, for if the primary or dominant part person was sick, and there is nothing to they can confidently use other parts attached to them. Evidence that the heart can not tolerate morbid condition is the fact that no immolated res in sacrifice has ever seen that was affected by the diseases observed in other viscera for they were many times when the kidneys full of stones and growths, small abscesses, and liver, lungs were found, and most of all in the spleen are also many disease states seen in these parts, the lot. lung with the trachea, and the portion of the liver next to the junction with the large blood vessel less prone to them also supports this reasonable explanation,. because it is precisely in these parts where the lung and liver are more intimately attached to the heart. Furthermore, when animals die due to disease and not sacrifice, and conditions as outlined above, morbid conditions found in the heart, if you search for “.

The Cato (234-149 BC) Roman in his work “De re rustic” counseled care by covering the hooves of oxen with liquid pitch. As treatment of scabies and to prevent tick bites, recommended a steep lupine seeds along with another plant called amurco, dissolved in water or wine, this preparation should be applied to the body of the sheep for two or three days , then washing the animal with seawater.

Publio Maron Virgilio (70-19 a. C.) recalled in his Georgics pastors treat their sheep with mange and after the esquilándolas rubbed with an ointment made bitter pomace oil, foam mercury, sulfur virgin fish Ida , crass wax, squill, hellebore and bitumen.

A wealthy Roman patrician-born Hispanic territory today, Lucius Junius Moderato Columella, which was first used the word in the century veterinary I. He used to qualify the pastor who serves inherent knowledge of animal medicine. Among his teachings regarding veterinary medicine it should be mentioned concern that animals defecate on forage, and isolation of the sick.

The sixth book of the twelve devoted to agriculture, is devoted to the care and breeding of oxen, horses and mules. Indicates remedies for most common conditions of these animals, and while many observations are full of superstitions, such as the stomach pains and intestinal heal in oxen and horses around looking ducks, they are few precepts show the advancement of medical science.

To treat abscesses was best “open them with iron than with medication. After squeezed concavity containing matter, washed with hot ox urine, and is attached by placing liquid soaked lint and fish oil …” .

Castration of calves-and this was the advice Columela Mago-is not to do with “iron” but squeezing the testicles with a piece of split fennel stalk, and they were slowly breaking. When he wanted to steer, and therefore the iron was inevitable, the best time was the spring or fall, especially when the moon was waning. Still, the bleeding was controlled better by adjusting two narrow strips of wood to the height of the “nerves” of the testicles.

For Scabies advised horse rub the animal exposed to sunlight, with cedar resin or mastic oil, or marine fat calf; but if the disease was advanced more heroic measures were needed, in which case it worked a preparation made by cooking equal parts of bitumen, sulfur and liquid hellebore fish and stale butter. Before applying the product had to scrape the affected area with an iron, washing with urine.

Garlic, multiple therapeutic indications in the history of medicine, it was used in its ground both bovine scabies, and rabid dog bite form.

Another example of superstition in applied veterinary Roman Pliny gives the second (25-79), who recommended to prevent rabies in the dog by giving milk of a nursing mother were breastfeeding a child. Bites of rabid dogs were treated by applying to the wound ashes of a dog’s head, which could also be beverages .

An edict of Emperor Diocletian, dated in the year 301 after Christ, while food prices fee covers our specialty veterinary setting tariffs or mulomedicus.

The Apsirto grecobizantino, the IV century AD, was chief veterinary officer in the army of Constantine, the Roman emperor who accepted religious freedom. His work is in the Hippiatrika, compiled by a writer unknown to today, ordered by Constantine VII in the tenth century, when he retired from business, he formed a school hipiatría.

The Romans lit yet another figure of the profession as Vegetius Renatus was, the V century, which is recognized as the first author of a book written exclusively dedicated to veterinary medicine. He is considered the father of the art.

In the Middle Ages Marshal, assigned to the head of twelve horses among the Germans charge appears and was in charge of taking care of them performing the functions of a veterinarian.

There were no major scientific advances in the middle ages, so that a whole host of saints were devoted to animal care. San Roque and San Sebastian were invoked in cases of fever; St. Hubert and St. Quiteria against rabies; San Eloy was responsible for fractures and will, over time the patron saint of veterinarians; San Blas protected all animals, while San Antonio put all its emphasis on the care of pigs and small livestock.

The farrier: In the ninth century horseshoes nail in Byzantium and the West appear simultaneously, giving rise to a new job. Although the medicine with the art of branding is not confused at first, slowly and constant contact with the animals, the farrier is acquiring sufficient knowledge to perform both activities. This happened in Spain and its colonies, while in the rest of Europe, “from the quarterback, groom, he comes to the vet, farriers do not influence the scientific evolution of the profession” .

“The institution of chivalry as social caste during the Middle Ages powerfully influence of equine medicine … If the horse was inseparable garment gentleman, we understand the interest in knowing precious caring and curing animal; between the obligations which draws Cavalier King Alfonso X in the entries include knowledge and hipiátrica hippology. Don Quixote recalls that knights must know the horse shoeing and taste their wounds “.

King Alfonso XI ordered him to write in the fourteenth century a Book of the camps, where dog ailments deserve special treatment.

“One of the most valuable documents for the history of the Veterinary universal is the manuscript of Salmiella Álvarez, Spanish marshal of the fourteenth century, whose copy is preserved in the National Library in Paris, studying medieval veterinary surgery is complete in this work, both in the description of the operative techniques and the admirable illustrations exornan text … “.

The albéitares exercised their activity in Spain like hipiatras, ie, limiting its actions to the treatment of diseases of horses and the art of branding . All put in front of his title, that of “master blacksmith”, though art was not part of the albeitería, but was merely a supplement. The farrier farrier was always the time, whereas the reverse condition was not the rule. Sometimes a simple artisan blacksmith held the title of master of lacking the farrier.

In the late fifteenth century, the Catholic Kings of Spain albéitares designated examiners, and pragmatic which is dated April 13, 1500, given in Sevilla confirms widespread albéitares concession to the Royal Mews, to examine applicants albeitería to teachers and farriers. This is the demonstration of the existence of the Proto-albeiterato, the first Court – that of Castile was in Madrid; later, during the sixteenth century were other Courts in Pamplona, Navarre, Aragon, Zaragoza, Barcelona, Catalonia and Valencia.

To be always examining judge had to be albéitar the Royal Mews, hence the name “Royal Court” that he was appointed to the group of proto-albéitares examiners.

France is conceptualized as the homeland of modern veterinary medicine. One of its oldest and best exponents of Solleysel Labessie was Jacques (1617-1680), who in 1664 published “Le Parfait Maréchal” work apart from his unique training value vet at the time, was known for denouncing plight in which the profession was due to having fallen into the hands of art farriers.

The State Council issued the King of France in the years 1746, 1774 and 1775, several decrees in which the notifiable diseases, marking of animals, were legislated transportation and trade those ordering and as rules on burial of corpses, compensation for livestock and problems were preparing for the slaughter. The first country to apply the sacrifice was England during the epidemic of 1745, in which six thousand cattle were killed.

The most lauro elevates the French nation is being the birthplace of the first official veterinary school to teach. A decree of August 4, 1761 authorizing Bourgelat Claudio, director of the Military Riding School in Lyon from 1740 to 1751 and author of “Elements of Hipiatría and New Knowledge of Equine Medicine”, to found in this city one “School for the treatment of diseases of the beasts”. It began operations on January 2 the following year and entered on February 13, the first student. Classes began on the 16th of the same month; 27 School had five students, engaged in dissections and copy the oral lessons.

The story goes that Bourgelat (1712-1779), which was the first military lawyer and then, once defended an individual charged with a crime. Having achieved their freedom took Bourgelat knowledge that his client was actually guilty, so heartbroken, left the forum and the toga dedicated to his other great passion, animals [14]. Already in this work was the first director and organizer of the Veterinary School of Lyon, and later it was also that of Alfort, created in 1765 in a suburb of Paris, nine kilometers from its geographical center, on the banks of Marne. On June 3, 1764, by decree of the French Council of State was conferred the title of Royal School of Veterinary School of Lyons.

Meanwhile, in Spain only in 1792 the School of Madrid was inaugurated. The Proto-Albeiterato joining this School ended in 1835 when the Veterinary School was established. Finally in 1850, after three hundred fifty years of activity the Proto-Albeiterato disappeared.

From the creation of the School of Lyon, were appearing rapidly in different European cities like institutes. In 1798 the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover was founded. The Toulouse is 1822.’s College of Veterinary Medicine, Brussels (Belgium) was founded in 1840.

Contemporary Bourgelat Glow in the French veterinary history Charles Vial de Saint Bel (1753-1793). Graduated in Lyon, taught in Paris, in the school of Alfort. Exiled during the French Revolution, founded in England the Veterinary College of London in April 1791. Passed away two years of his great work, a result of glanders, a disease contracted from one of his equine patients.

In America the first record of a center for veterinary education is in Mexico. In 1853 the National School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine was founded in San Jacinto, later renamed National School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science.

The first year veterinary in the United States was established at Cornell University in 1868, although the first veterinary school was founded at Iowa State College in 1879.

Finally go a reference to another French scholar whose research allowed veterinary medicine forward by leaps and bounds in the second half of the nineteenth century. Louis Pasteur worked in various aspects of animal diseases, from his studies of media control pebrina, silkworm disease, made between 1865 and 1869, through vaccines FC (1880), anthrax (1881) [16] and pig erysipelas (1882), culminating with the discovery of the rabies vaccine in 1885.

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